Native American Pre-History

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Native American Pre-History

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A very concise look at Native American Pre-History
The indigenous peoples of North America

The purpose of this page is to give a little background reference for our first people, those we call Native Americans. Here, we will begin to see where they came from, and who they might be…

Mastodon bones - Native American Pre-History

Mastodon Bones

Before all of us? There is a current claim of the oldest evidence of human activity in North America — the marked bones of a mastodon dating back some 130,000 years. Suggesting that a still-unknown hominid species (not Homo Sapiens) was living in North America well before humans (Homo Sapiens) were thought to have arrived in the Americas. This photo, part of series taken at the site in coastal San Diego County, CA., shows mastodon bones that appear to have been “processed when fresh” and “arranged”. There is also a “hammerstone” thought to have been used to break some of the bones, associated with the find. This is a contentious discovery, more maybe later… Photo: U.S. PD? San Diego Natural History Museum, fair use.  {001}

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. Spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period, to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
True, the phrase “pre-Columbian era” literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus’s voyages of 1492. However, in practice, the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas cultures until those cultures were vanquished, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans. Even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus’s first landing. For this reason, alternative terms such as: Precontact Americas, Pre-Colonial Americas or Prehistoric Americas are also in use and will likely replace any reference to Columbus. In Latin America, the term usually used is Pre-Hispanic. The Norse colonization of North America is generally not treated as “pre-Columbian”, despite the fact that it predates Columbus by several centuries.
see also:
References – DictionaryIndigenous Peoples’ Day

Cultural Areas of Pre- Columbian North America - Native American Pre-History

Cultural Areas of Pre- Columbian
North America
Illustration 2007 – Nikater

Exactly when the first group of people migrated into the Americas is the subject of much debate. Asian nomads are thought to have entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge (Beringia), now the Bering Strait and likely along the coast as well. New DNA studies indicate that the first group was likely about 250 people. Later genetic evidence found in Amerindians’ maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) supports the theory of multiple genetic populations migrating from northern Asia and perhaps a small contribution from as far south as Micronesia.* There is currently some claim of paleo-evidence/influence from Europe on America’s east coast.
Today, the chronology of migration models is divided into two general approaches. The short chronology theory, suggests that the first movement beyond Alaska into the New World occurred no earlier than 14,000–17,000 years ago, followed by successive waves of immigrants. Artifacts have been found in both North and South America which have been dated to 14,000 years ago, and it has been proposed that the migrants had reached Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America by this time.
The long chronology theory proposes that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at a much earlier date, possibly 50,000–40,000 years ago or earlier. Sites dating back to 20,000 years ago have been claimed. In the west, one of the earliest identifiable cultures was the Clovis culture, with sites dating from some 13,000 years ago.

*”Dusty” Crawford” article below.

Clovis Culture

Clovis grave site (post) 12,500 yrs. old. near Willsal, MT Photo: U.S. PD? fair use.

OWDR Clovis Points - Native American Pre-HistoryLatest DNA based genetic research now indicates that all Western Hemisphere Native Americans are descended from a single gene pool with roots in Asia [the Mal’ta boy, Siberia of about 24,000 years ago]. The Okunev people of Siberia are related to Native Americans, and it has been suggested that they were the group who populated the Americas. However, there is also a current contention than some “mixing” took place, in transit, with people bearing genes indicating a southeast Asian origin. This is thought to have taken place before these Siberian peoples descended into North America.

The only Clovis Culture grave ever found, the Anzick child [Montana – 1968], dates at about 12,500 years old. It is that of a one year old boy, complete with red ocher on the body and a large selection of Clovis style bone and stone tools. The evidence set completes the perception that all Native Americans are descendants of the Clovis People. Canadian Native Americans appear not directly related to the baby, but to his family. Some 80% of all other Native Americans but mostly those now in Central and South America, prove to be directly related to the baby.

Other recent discoveries as food for thought…

Darrell ‘Dusty’ Crawford – Montana Blackfeet
Oldest DNA in America

Darrell ‘Dusty’ Crawford, a member of the Montana Blackfeet tribe, had always been told his ancestors came from Siberia, across a landbridge. But his tribe told a different story, “We’ve always been here, since time immemorial,” said Shelly Eli, an instructor at Blackfeet Community College. “There’s no oral stories that say we crossed a bridge or anything else.” So Dusty sought his own answers. At the urging of his late brother Willy, he took a CRI Genetics, DNA Ancestry Test* and discovered that he could trace his ancestry back 17,000 years! True, he was 83% Native American, but more surprising, he found that his North American ancestry was older than the land bridge that once connected Alaska to Siberia, where he had been told his ancestors had come from, in school. Instead, Crawford’s results suggested that his ancestors came not by bridge, but by boat. Current theory suggests his closest genetic ancestors, some of the first people to set foot in the Americas, had arrived in South America from the Pacific Islands, not Siberia. Remains found in Peru contain DNA from the same haplogroup** as Dusty Crawford, meaning that he can trace his lineage directly back down to Peru, and back across the Pacific Ocean for 55 generations. His ancestors would have then worked their way as far North as Alaska, over many generations of travel. 83% of Crawford’s DNA matches up with Native Americans. The rest of it showed his diverse heritage; about 10% European, about 5% East Asian, 2% South Asian and less than 1% African.

* Which aims to provide customers with a “biogeographical ancestry,” a description of where their genes fit into the overall story of the species.
* *MtDNA Haplogroup B2, which originated in Arizona about 17,000 years ago and yet today, maintain a low frequency in Alaska and Canada.

"Ina and the Shark" - Cook Islands $20 bill

“Ina and the Shark”
Cook Islands $20 bill

MtDNA Haplogroup, one of four major Native American groups that spread across the continent. Called clans, they trace back to four (modern named) female ancestors, Ai, Ina, Chie and Sachi. Crawford’s DNA says he’s a descendant of Ina. Ina’s name comes from a Polynesian mythological figure, a representative of the “first woman.” She rides a shark on a the Cook Islands $20 bill.
According to the DNA testing company CRI Genetics, “Its path from the Americas is somewhat of a mystery as there are no frequencies of the haplogroup in either Alaska or Canada. Today this Native American line is found only in the Americas, with a strong frequency peak on the eastern coast of North America.” To date, the company has never been able to trace anyone’s DNA ancestry in the Americas, back as far as Crawford’s. The DNA group’s closest relatives outside the Americas are in Southeast Asia.

References: Internet, Great Falls Tribune (MT) 05/06/2019, Live Science and several other publications.

Hoyo-Negro Skull - Native American Pre-History

Hoyo-Negro Skull

The recent find of a complete female skeleton (teenager) in a water-filled Yucatan cave has yielded radio carbon dates between 12 and 13,000 years ago, backed up by mitochondrial DNA from a wisdom tooth. That sample, also confirms the Siberian ancestry, noted above, on the mother’s side. Studies of  nuclear DNA to determine the paternal ancestry, have not yet been completed. Much more will come from this well-preserved, complete find.
Photo: U.S. PD? Hoyo-Negro Skull.  {001}


Calvert Island Footprint - Native American Pre-History

Calvert Island Footprint

29 shoeless footprints were left by two adults and a child at the water’s edge on Calvert Island, British Columbia. They are 13,000 years old. Photo: U.S. PD? Calvert Island, BC 13,000 year old footprint.  {001}



Other cultures in this age group:
Folsom tradition
Plano cultures
Cody complex

Archaic period

As the ice receded, the North American climate was unstable until about 10,000 years ago. This led to widespread migration among the Paleo-Indians, dictated by the changing climate and as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought. Spreading throughout the Americas, they diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct tribes moving from place to place. Hunter-gatherers, likely characterized by small, mobile bands consisting of approximately 20 to 50 members of an extended family. These small bands were thought to have subsisted primarily through hunting now-extinct giant land animals such as mastodon and ancient bison. Over time we have found a variety of the tools they made and used. Including unique styles of projectile points and knives, as well as less distinctive implements used for butchering and hide processing. In general, Arctic, Subarctic, and coastal peoples continued to live as hunters and gatherers.
Over the course of thousands of years, the vastness of the American continents, the variety of their climates, ecology, vegetation, fauna, and landforms, led ancient peoples to coalesce into many distinct linguistic and cultural groups. Agriculture was adopted in more temperate and sheltered regions. There, they domesticated, bred and cultivated a number of plant species.* (The majority of this agricultural revolution took place in South America.) These species were very nutritious, and they now constitute 50–60% of all crops in cultivation worldwide. Wherever it was adopted, plant cultivation permitted a dramatic rise in population.
The oral histories of these indigenous peoples describe a wide range of traditional creation stories. Often saying that a given people have been living in a certain territory since the creation of the world.
*The Originals Index – Resources and Hazards – Plants – Food Plants


It turns out that research appears to strongly indicate that there was also immigration from Europe. Some of the archeological work referenced here goes back as far as the 1850’s in the American East and South. Adena mounds in North America (Kentucky, Georgia, Ohio, West Virginia, etc.) are similar to burial mounds in Europe, with concentric circles phallic symbols and standing stones. These enclosures are circular earth embankments with interior or exterior ditches. They include openings which appear to reference solar, lunar, and other astrological events. Occasionally, timber circles are incorporated in the designs as they are in Europe. American Mound Builder work often closely resembles European Neolithic and Bronze Age henges of around 3,000 to 2,000 BCE. There are also some common features between European and North American burials, in and around the mounds.
Structures of this nature do not occur in the American West, but the astronomical components do, such as at Hovenweep, White Shaman* and others. Photo: U.S. PD Kentucky Heritage Council. & Patrick G {001}
see below:
*White Shaman

Left: Mt Horeb Earthworks in Kentucky, USA ( Kentucky Heritage Council ).
Right: Goseck Circle, Germany (
Patrick G / Flickr )

Eastern U.S.

The next four sections refer primarily to Paleo-Indian activities in the Eastern U.S.
Western Indians were still somewhat nomadic hunter-gatherers, without the horse.
There was eventually, widespread cultivation of South American developed crops.
The information is included here to help the continuity of the entire tale
and to help demonstrate the variety of Indian life before the white man came…

Middle Archaic period
Late Archaic period
Woodland period
Mississippian culture

Middle Archaic period

Watson Brake Illustration - Native American Pre- History

Watson Brake Illustration

After the migration or migrations, it was several thousand years before the first complex societies arose, the earliest emerging about seven to eight thousand years ago As early as 6500 BCE, people in the Lower Mississippi Valley at the Monte Sano site were building complex earthwork mounds, probably for religious purposes. This is the earliest dated of numerous mound complexes found in present-day Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida. Since the late twentieth century, archeologists have explored and dated these sites. They have found that they were built by hunter-gatherer societies, whose people occupied the sites on a seasonal basis, and who had not yet developed ceramics. Watson Brake, a large complex of eleven platform mounds, was constructed beginning in 3400 BCE and added to over 500 years. This has changed earlier assumptions that complex construction arose only after societies had adopted agriculture, become sedentary, often developed stratified hierarchy, and generally also developed ceramics. These ancient people had organized to build complex mound projects from a different basis.

Late Archaic period

Poverty Point - Native American Pre- History

Poverty Point

Poverty Point, built about 1500 BCE, is the centerpiece of a culture extending over 100 sites on both sides of the Mississippi in the Lower Mississippi Valley. The entire complex is nearly a mile across with earthworks in the form of six concentric half-circles, divided by radial aisles, together with some mounds.Mound building was continued by succeeding cultures, adding effigy mounds, conical and ridge mounds and other shapes, built numerous sites in the middle Mississippi and Ohio River valleys as well. Photo: U.S. PD 2016 – Herb Roe


Woodland period

Hopewell mounds - Native American Pre- History

Hopewell mounds
Mound City Group in Ohio

The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures refers to the time period from roughly 1000 BCE to 1000 CE in the eastern part of North America. The term “Woodland” was coined in the 1930s and refers to prehistoric sites between the Archaic period and the Mississippian cultures. The Adena culture and the ensuing Hopewell tradition during this period built monumental earthwork architecture and established continent-spanning trade and exchange networks.This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short period, but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction. Some Woodland peoples continued to use spears and atlatls until the end of the period, when they were replaced by bows and arrows. Photo: U.S. PD 2016 – Herb Roe – Wikipedia article

The Mississippian Culture

Cahokia - Native American Pre- History

Largest Mississippian culture site

The Mississippian culture was spread across the Southeast and Midwest from the Atlantic coast to the edge of the plains, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Upper Midwest, although most intensively in the area along the Mississippi River and Ohio River. One of the distinguishing features of this culture was the construction of complexes of large earthen mounds and grand plazas, continuing the mound building traditions of earlier cultures. They grew maize and other crops intensively, participated in an extensive trade network, and had a complex stratified society. The Mississippians first appeared around 1000 CE, following and developing out of the less agriculturally intensive and less centralized Woodland period. The largest urban site of this people, Cahokia may have reached a population of over 20,000. Other chiefdom’s were constructed throughout the Southeast, and its trade networks reached to the Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico. At its peak, between the 12th and 13th centuries, Cahokia was the most populous city in North America. (Larger cities did exist in Mesoamerica and South America.) Monk’s Mound, the major ceremonial center of Cahokia, remains the largest earthen construction of the prehistoric New World. The culture reached its peak in about 1200-1400 C.E., and in most places, it seems to have been in decline before the arrival of Europeans. Current studies suggest that this was at least partly due to climate changes and flooding on the Mississippi River. Photo: U.S. PD 2013 Heironymous Rowe.
see also:
References – DictionaryCahokia

Many Mississippian peoples were encountered by the expedition of Hernando de Soto in the 1540s, mostly with disastrous results for both sides. Unlike the Spanish expeditions in Mesoamerica, who conquered vast empires with relatively few men, the de Soto expedition wandered the American Southeast for four years, becoming more bedraggled, losing more men and equipment, and eventually arriving in Mexico as a fraction of its original size. The local people fared much worse though, as the fatalities of diseases* introduced by the expedition devastated the populations and produced much social disruption. By the time Europeans returned a hundred years later, nearly all of the Mississippian groups had vanished, and vast swaths of their territory were virtually uninhabited.
The Originals Index – Resources and Hazards – Disease

The Southwest – Greater Four Corners Area

6500 – 1500 B.C. – Archaic
1500 B.C. to 50 A.D. – Basketmaker (early)
50 to 500 A.D. – Basketmaker II (late)
500 to 750 A.D. – Basketmaker III
750 to 900 A.D – Pueblo I
900 to 1150 A.D. – Pueblo II
1150 – 1350 A.D. – Pueblo III
1350 to 1600 A.D. – Pueblo IV

6500 – 1500 B.C. – Archaic

Subsistence based on wild foods: high mobility with a low population density. Shelters and open sites; atlatl and dart; no pottery.

White Shaman*

Certainly one of the most interesting examples is the, so called, White Shaman Rock Shelter in Texas, near the junction of the Pecos and Rio Grand Rivers. Discovered by the modern world in 1957. An unknown group, but possibly ancestral or related to the Huichol people of Norther Mexico, lived in this arid area 5,000 years ago. Other evidence indicates perhaps as much as 6,000 years before that. Research in the area has revealed much about this ancient culture: food, clothing, artifacts, astronomical knowledge, religious beliefs and technology. Here, they created some of the finest rock art in the southwest. In the shelter is a spectacular pictograph, a mural 26 feet long and 13 feet tall, thought to be around 2,000 years old.  {001}The White Shaman mural is painted on the east wall of a southwest-facing shelter, and faces due west. The positioning of figures within the mural suggests alignment with sun and shadow as observed on the solstices. Commentary and Photo: Chester Leeds.
*It should be noted that Native Americans, in general, reject and object to the use of the terms “Shaman” or “Shamanism” in regard to their religious and spiritual practices. – Doc
see also:
References – DictionaryShaman and Shamanism
Books – Novels and History (non-ref) – Boyd, Carolyn

1500 B.C. to 50 A.D. – Basketmaker (early)
Long term seasonal use of caves for camping, storage, burial. Camp and limited sites in the open. Atlatl and dart; no pottery. Corn and squash but no beans; cultivation primarily on floodplain or runoff based (?).

50 to 500 A.D. – Basketmaker II (late)
Shallow pithouses plus storage pits or cists. Settlements dispersed with small low density villages in some areas. Campsites are still important. Atlatl and dart; no pottery. Corn and squarsh but no beans. Some upland dry farming in addition to the floodplain.
see also:
References – DictionaryTattoo

500 to 750 A.D. – Basketmaker III
Now, deep pithouses plus surface storage pits, cists or rooms. Dispersed settlement with occasional small villages and great kivas. Atlatl sometimes replaced by bow and arrow; plain gray pottery sometimes black and white. Corn , squash and now beans appear.
see also:
References – DictionaryKiva

750 to 900 A.D. – Pueblo I
Large villages in some areas.Habitation units of “protokiva” plus surface roomblocks of jacal* or crude masonry, great kivas. Bow and arrow becoming common, plain and neckbanded pottery with low frequencies of black and white and decorated redware.
*References – DictionaryJakal Hut
References –Dictionary – Kiva

900 to 1150 A.D. – Pueblo II
Chacoan florescence; “Great Houses” great kivas; roads, etc. in many, but not all regions. A strong difference between Great Houses and surrounding “unit” pueblo composed of a kiva and surface area roomblocks. Pottery, corrugated gray and elaborate black and white, plus decor. Red or orange types in some areas.
see also:
References – DictionaryKiva

1150 – 1350 A.D. – Pueblo III
Large Pueblos and/or “revisionist” great houses in some areas, dispersed pattern in others. High kiva to to room ratios; cliff dwellings, towers and triwalls. Corrugated gray and elaborate blak and white pottery, plus red orange pottery in some areas. Abandonment of the four corners area by 1300 (drought).
see also:
References – DictionaryKiva

1350 to 1600 A.D. – Pueblo IV
Large plaza-oriented Pueblos in Rio Grande and Western Pueblo areas, low kiva to room ratio. Kachina cult widespread. Corrugated pottery replaced by plainer more utilitarian types, black and white pottery declines relative to decor and oxidized types. This is the culture that met the Spaniards, likely acquiring some firearms from them by the late 1500’s.
see also:
References – DictionaryKiva
The Originals Index – Native American Tribes – Pueblos of New Mexico

Late Arrivals

The Navajo and their offshoots, the Apache, and their offshoots the Kiowa, are late comers of Athabaskan origin. They are thought to have arrived in the American Southwest from the north by about 1500, likely passing through Alberta and Wyoming. Archaeological finds, dating to around 1500 and considered to be proto-Navajo, have been located in northern New Mexico around the La Plata, Animas and Pine rivers. I have seen no article discussing their specific genetic relationship with other Native American Tribes, I suspect it is very similar, however, there is that 10,000+ years time differential?  {001}
see also:
Apache, Kiowa and Navajo throughout Old West Daily Reader.

Conquest and disease

The Indigenous population of the Americas, as a whole, has been estimated to have been more than 60 million people before European contact, equal to about 10 percent of the total world population. The thriving cities of the Americas would have been among the most populous on the planet in the times. While most of these were in South America, there were a few large ones in the North American east. The assault, largely by diseases (principally influenza, measles, smallpox and cholera) for which the indigenous populations had no natural immunity, and to a lesser degree by outright murder, slavery and destruction of property, led to massive abandonment of cities, villages and agricultural lands, simply due to population loss. In less than 100 years the native population was reduced to 5 or 6 million people. About a 90% decline in population. This period is called the Great Dying.
Population estimates for North America run from just over 2 million to a high of 18 million with the majority of these falling around 7 million. Indicating that the 100 year death toll was about 6.3 million, using the 90% estimate. In all cases the death toll from disease alone is estimated at 80%.
There is also contention in scientific circles that the associated loss of arable land, which had reverted to natural vegetation (wilderness) due to the loss of the people who had worked it (The Great Dying), was, along with the global cooling caused by volcanic eruptions and lower solar activity, a contributing cause for a drop in global atmospheric carbon dioxide which helped generate The Little Ice Age (about 1300 to 1870); thought to be a symptom of these changes.

The Horse and the White Man…

Beginning in the 1500’s, the horse, acquired from the Spanish, caused significant changes to the lifestyles of many Native American tribes. Dramatic as those changes were in the west, they didn’t hold a candle to the coming of the white man. Tribal territories, affiliations and lifestyles; everything changed dramatically over a period of about 150 years; some six or seven generations. The last two or three of those generations faced the full onslaught of the white culture. Part of the time period we consider the Old West encompassed the final battles and the subjugation of the remaining free tribes; known as the Indian Wars.* Some tribes were decimated outright by disease or conflict. Others migrated either by choice or by force; often moving west because of tribes east of them, now armed with the white man’s weaponry, were themselves being displaced by the whites.
Much of what occurred between the mid 1500’s and today’s world will be addressed in the pages of Old West Daily Reader


Tribes of the Indian Nation Map - Native American Pre-History

Further insight into the Indians of the time may be found in:
The Originals Index – Native American Tribes
PLAYERS – Timelines Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Treaties Timeline
*PLAYERS – Timelines Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Wars Timeline
see also:
Quotes Index – Indian Quotes
Photo Gallery Index – Indian Photos
Photo Gallery Index – Indian Photos – Indian Chiefs
The Originals Index – Horses
References – Dictionary
Modern references:
Wk. 38, 09/21/2004 – National Museum of the American Indian
Wk. 33, 08/15/1977 – American Indian Institute
The Originals Index – Native American Tribes – Pueblos of New Mexico


As always with Old West Daily Reader, this is a light touch on a vast and complex subject. Hopefully, Old West Daily Reader‘s Native American Tribes sections have enough information to start and/or enrich your own explorations into the amazing world of the First Americans. – Doc

Any mistakes or errors in this entire section are solely mine.
Please feel free to offer suggestions or corrections.
I want the information here to be accurate.
  email me.
Contact – Doc B.

Native American Immigration poster - Native American Pre-History
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barbed wire divider2 - Native American Pre-HistoryEnd: Native American Pre-History

{001} C 06/20; E 05/19: F 04/19; P 11/17

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