Native American Tribes

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Native American Tribes

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Here is a partial list of Native American Tribes along with most of the references to them in The Old West Daily Reader.
Another of those complicated, involved sections which I work on periodically.
Always adding new material…

Beginning in the 1500’s, the horse, acquired from the Spanish, caused significant changes to the lifestyles of many Native American tribes. Dramatic as those changes were in the west, they didn’t hold a candle to the coming of the white man. Tribal territories, affiliations and lifestyles; everything changed dramatically over a period of about 150 years; some six or seven generations. The last two or three of those generations faced the full onslaught of the white culture. The time period we consider the Old West encompassed the final battles and the subjugation of the remaining free tribes; known as the Indian Wars. * Some tribes were decimated outright by disease or conflict. Others migrated either by choice or by force; often moving west because of tribes east of them, now armed with the white man’s weaponry, were themselves being displaced by the whites. The destruction of the buffalo herds and the associated devastation to the tribes, disrupted the self-sufficient lifestyle of Indian people more than all other federal policies. By the end of the 19th Century, the Native American population was only 237,000, down from one million a century earlier.
The snapshots of the tribes presented here are very limited and only intended to offer context for an approach to this incredibly complex story.
The Originals Index – Timelines -A-L Index – Indian Wars Timeline

 Tribes of the Indian Nation Map - Native American Tribes

Note: Tribal Great Seals and flags are a modern convention acquired from the white culture.
They did not exist in historical times.


California Indians







(see: Wk. 09, 02/26/1860 – Wiyot Massacre)

Yahi – extinct
Wk. 35, 08/25/1911
Wk. 12, 03/25/1916
Wk. 51, 12/20/1978




Great Basin Indians

(see: Wk. 36, 09/09/1860)

Northern Paiute – Mason Valley – A subsistence culture of foraging [ roots such as Cyperus esculentus] with the addition of fish, pine nuts and wild game.
Typhoid 1867 killed about 10%.
Origin Tribe of the Ghost Dance c. 1889 [Wovoka,[aka: Jack Wilson – Medicine Man]  {001}



Western Shoshone – Eastern California, central and eastern Nevada  and northwestern Utah. Foragers, hunter gatherers.
Northern Shoshone – Northern Utah and southeastern Idaho. Fishermen, gatherers > horse in 1600’s, became nomadic plains hunters; buffalo, etc.
Eastern Shoshone – Northern Colorado, Montana and Western WyomingHunter gatherers 

Also in: Montana, Idaho, Utah, Nevada and California, + horse, (1600’s) nomadic hunters of buffalo and pronghorn. >1750’s pushed S & SW by conflicts with the ArapahoBlackfootCheyenneCrow and Lakota; some then became the Comanche* of the southwest.

Wk 14, 04/07/1805 – Sacajawea
Wk. 36, 09/09/1860 –
Comanche – below

Shoshone Indians
Photo: U.S. PD



Great Seal of the Southern Ute

high up or land of the sun

Tribal Divisions:
Mouache [Southern Utes]
Tabeguache [Uncompahgre] (current census 2,790 [2015])
Winimunche (Weemunuchee) [Western]

The Ute have a very active Modern Tribal culture holding annual Bear Dances, Sun Dances and other gatherings.
Northern Ute Reservation – Fort Duchesne, UT: White River (2nd largest in U.S.)
Southern Ute Reservation – Ignacio, CO: Capote, Mouache & Tabeguache
Ute Mountain Reservation – Towaoc, CO: Winimuche
-Ute Mountain Tribal Park

Traditional Ute territory map - Native American TribesFirst mention by Spanish chroniclers 1626, then by Fray Francisco de Escalante in 1776.
Ancestral Lands: centered in Colorado but also parts of New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
Traditionally nomadic hunter-gatherers, particularly in the western more desert-like part of their territory. The eastern mountainous areas provided more variety in plants and larger more plentiful game, if a colder climate.
The Spanish invasion into the Southwest from Mexico began c. 1530’s. Likely first contact with Europeans was late 1500’s  with horses being acquired late 1600’s via trade with Pueblo Indians to the south. First Treaty with the Spaniards 1670. As with most tribes, the mobility of the horse led to lifestyles similar to those of the plains Indians. They became very successful nomadic mountain buffalo hunter gatherers, raiders, slavers and traders. They raided Spanish settlements, warred occasionally with the Arapahoe and resisted any incursion into their lands by the whites. Including to some extent, the Mountain Men. The Mormon invasion of Utah beginning in 1847 led to major conflicts. The Walker War of 1853 and The Black Hawk War of the 1860’s. But it was to be mining and the theft of their lands that brought the oncoming white culture into the final conflict with the Utethat and an over zealous missionary . All resulting in the Ute being forced onto reservations in Utah and Colorado by the Army 1879 & 1881.
{001 & 021}

Further Reference to Ute Indians:
Players – Timelines Index – Timelines M-Z Index – Ute Indians Timeline
Photo Gallery Index – Indian PhotosChief Ouray & Chipeta
Pine River Store; Sapiah (aka: “Buckskin Charley”)
Chief Ouray‘s Re-internment 1925)
Map: Ute Lands c. 1492 borrowed from the Ute Tribal Website (see: References – Websites)

Quotes Index – Indian Quotes – Gov. F.W. Pitkin)
Wk 15, 04/10/1865 – Black Hawk’s War 
(Wk. 39, 09/29/1879 – Meeker Massacre

Southern Ute Indians
Photo: US PD

Plains Indians


our people

Arapaho camp - buffalo meat drying - Fort Dodge, KS - 1870 - Native American Tribes

Arapaho camp – Ft. Dodge, KS – 1870
drying buffalo meat

(1600’s), Minnesota & North Dakota > Montana > Wyoming and Colorado. Migratory hunters > + horse (1700’s), buffalo hunters, raiders.
Self divided in 1832 with some influence by William Bent*.
Northern Arapaho – Wyoming, North Platte River. Nomadic buffalo hunters, raiders.
Southern Arapaho – Colorado, Arkansas River. Nomadic Buffalo hunters, raiders.
(see: Wk. 20, 05/19/1869)
(and: Wk. 34, 08/21/1849)





They were the first of the Siouan-speaking peoples to leave the Eastern Woodlands and move onto the Great Plains. Speaking a Siouan language closely related to the Sioux language but are not considered part of the modern Oceti Sakowin. They had separated as a separate people sometime before 1640, when they were first documented as a tribe by French missionaries. Other Sioux-speakers referred to them as the Hohe, (rebels). The Canadian Nakoda (Stoney) possibly began as the westernmost band of the Assiniboine, but were referred to as a separate people after about 1744. Later, in the nineteenth century, further bands belonging to the Dakota peoples and to a lesser extent to the Lakotas, also moved to Canada and their descendants still live in several of the Canadian First Nations.
The tribe became a member of the Iron Confederation with the Cree. (c. 1840’s).
Through the Confederation, they became reliable and important trading partners and middlemen, in the vast area known then as Rupert’s Land in western Canada, for Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company. Later, during the later 18th century and early 19th century, south of the border in what became Montana and the Dakota territories, the tribe traded with the American Fur Company and the competing Rocky Mountain Fur Company. The trade was for guns, gunpowder, metal tomahawks, metal pots, wool blankets, wool coats, wool leggings, and glass beads and other goods in exchange for beaver pelts, bison robes and other furs.

Assiniboine 1851 treaty territory

Increased contact with Europeans resulted in Native Americans contracting endemic Eurasian infectious diseases, most notably smallpox. The tribe suffered epidemics with high mortality and the population crashed from around 10,000 people in the late 18th century to around 2600 by 1890.

see also:
The Originals Index – ExpeditionsThe Fur TradeThe Iron Confederacy
Just for Fun Pages – Monsters and Supernatural Beings of the Old West – 
Assiniboine Creation Myth
Photo Gallery Index – Indian PhotosAssiniboine Buffalo Robe
(5th photo from the bottom of the page)



 Ampskapi Piikani (US)

Blackfeet: Siksika  {Blackfoot – those with black-dyed mocasins} (north)
Blood: Kainai, Kainah {blood} (middle)
Piegan: Piikáni, Pigunni {poorly dressed} (south)

An Algonquian people of the North American Great Plains.Eastern U.S. > North Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. Migratory plains hunter gatherers from the east until acquiring the horse in the 1700’s then, primarily buffalo hunters and Raiders. Raised tobacco. Notably defensive of territory

Largest of three Blackfoot-speaking groups that made up the Blackfoot Confederacy.
Piegan peoples in Canada and the United States were forced to divide their traditional homelands in the nineteenth century according to the national borders .  They were forced to sign treaties with one of those two countries, settle in reservations on one side or the other of the border, and be enrolled in one of two government-like bodies sanctioned by these two North American nation-states. The two successor groups are the Blackfeet Nation a “federally-recognized tribe” in Montana, USA and the Piikani Nation, a recognized “Indian band” in Alberta, Canada.

The Blackfeet are fairly recent occupiers of this area. Until 1600 CE, they resided in an area of the woodlands north and west of the Great Lakes. Pressure exerted by British traders at James Bay in present day Canada on the Algonquin-speaking tribes in the area drove the Blackfeet out onto the Northern Plains. They eventually acquired firearms and horses, and became a formidable example of the classic Plains Indian culture. They were a powerful force, controlling an area that extended from current day Edmonton, Alberta Province, nearly to Yellowstone Park, and from Glacier Park to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Their sacred history became centered in the Badger-Two Medicine area, known as their “Cathedral”.
In the late 19th century, Blackfeet territory was encroached on by European Americans and Canadians, and various branches of the people were forced to cede lands and ultimately move to smaller Indian reservations in the United States and reserves in Canada.[4] Adjacent to their reservation, established by Treaty of 1896, are two federally controlled areas: the Lewis and Clark National Forest, set up in 1896, which contains the Badger-Two Medicine area, an area of 200 square miles (130,000-acres); and Glacier National Park, both part of the tribal nation’s former territory.


beautiful people

(1680), Minnesota > Conflict migrations: North & South Dakota >Nebraska/Wyoming. Originally farmers/hunter gatherers > (+ horse 1700’s) nomadic buffalo hunters;
self divided around 1832:
Northern Cheyenne – Nebraska/Wyoming. Nomadic Buffalo hunters, raiders.
Southern Cheyenne – Kansas and Colorado. Nomadic Buffalo hunters, raiders.
– Influenced by William Bent to move near his trading fort on the Arkansas River in Colorado. {019}

The Warrior Societies

Along with the Council of Forty-four, Cheyenne military societies were one of the two central institutions of traditional Cheyenne Indian tribal governance.  Council chiefs were responsible for overall governance of individual bands and the tribe as a whole. The chiefs or headmen of military societies were in charge of maintaining discipline within the tribe, overseeing tribal hunts and ceremonies, and providing military leadership. Council chiefs selected which of the six military societies would assume these duties; after a period of time on-duty, the chiefs would select a different society to take up the duties.

The Four Original Societies
Originally established by the prophet Sweet Medicine,
these four societies were the original Cheyenne military societies.
Over time, some have transformed or developed branches.

Fox Warriors Society (Vóhkêséhetaneo’o or Monêsóonetaneo’o), also known as Swift Fox or Kitfox.
This society is found among both the Northern and the Southern Cheyenne.
The Coyote Warriors Society (O’ôhoménotâxeo’o) and Flintmen Society
(Motsêsóonetaneo’o) are branches of the Fox Warriors Society.

Elk Warriors Society (Vóhkêséhetaneo’o or Monêsóo)
also known as Elk Horn Scrapers, Bone Scraper Society, Hoof Rattle,
Crooked Lance, Headed Lance or Medicine Lance.
This society is found among both the Northern and the Southern Cheyenne.
This was the society of the mixed-blood Cheyenne George Bent
and the famous warrior Roman Nose.

Shield Warriors Society (Ma’êhoohevaso) also known as Red Shield.
This society was originally found in both the Northern and the Southern Cheyenne,
but today is found only among the Northern Cheyenne. Buffalo Warriors (Hotóanótâxeo’o),
also known as Buffalo Bull or Bull, is a branch of the Shield Warriors Society.

Bowstring Men (Héma’tanóohese), also known as the Owl Man’s Bowstring.
This society was originally found in both the Northern and the Southern Cheyenne.
Today, it is found only among the Southern Cheyenne.
Wolf Warriors Society (Ho’néhenótâxeo’o),
this is the alternate name for the Bowstring Men among the Southern Cheyenne.
This society developed out of the Bowstring Men in the 19th Century by a vision held by Owl Friend.

More modern additions…

Fifth society
Dog Warrior Society (Hotamétaneo’o), also known as Dog Men.
This society was also called Dog Soldiers by the whites.
The Dog Warrior Society was established by a directive given in a visionary dream after the prophet Sweet Medicine’s departure.
This society was originally found in both the Northern and the Southern Cheyenne,
but today is found only among the Southern Cheyenne.

Crazy Dogs (Hotamémâsêhao’o), also known as Foolish Dogs.
This society is similar to the Bowstring Men in function but found only among the Northern Cheyenne.
Among the Northern Cheyenne, Dog Warrior Society and Wolf Warriors merged,
which resulted in the development of the new breed of Dog Warriors now called the Crazy Dogs.
The Crazy Dogs are considered by many to be a sixth society instead of a branch of the fifth society.

Sixth society
Contrary Warriors Society (Hohnóhkao’o) also known as the Inverted Bow-string Society.
Its members, the Contrary Warriors, have proved in bravery by riding backward into battle.

Contrary Society, also known as Clown Society
This society draws upon the same spiritual powers as the Contrary Warriors Society;
this society was primarily composed of Cheyenne elders and may be a mature variation of the Contrary Warriors Society.
They were charged with educating the Cheyenne ceremonial ways of the cultural “dos” and “don’ts”
through humor, sarcasm and satire, in a fashion that is contrary to the normalcy of traditional Cheyenne culture.

PLAYERS – Timelines – Timelines A-L – Cheyenne Indians Timeline)



The People

The Comanche Nation were once a part of the Shoshone Tribe. In the late 1600’s and early 1700’s, they migrated across the plains, through Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma, ultimately settling in Southwest Oklahoma. Bands of the Comanche were formed on the basis of kinship and other social relationships. The buffalo was an important resource, providing food, clothing, tepee covering, and a wide variety of other goods.
This tribe was highly skilled at breeding and trading horses, a key element in Comanche culture. Fighting battles on horseback, with skill beyond other Indian peoples of the time, led to a tremendous advantage in times of war. Comanche horsemen set the pattern of nomadic equestrian life that became characteristic of the Plains tribes in the 18th and 19th centuries.

PLAYERS – Timelines – Timelines A-L – Comanche Indians Timeline)
Shoshone Tribe – above



– The Absaalooke Nation

Ashalaho – Many Lodges’, today called Mountain Crow
Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake – ‘Mountain People’, or Ashkúale ‘The Center Camp’

Binnéessiippeele – ‘Those Who Live Amongst the River Banks’
Ashshipíte  – today, called River Crow or(‘The Black Lodges’

Eelalapito – Kicked in the Bellies or Ammitaalasshé
Home Away From The Center, that is, away from the Ashkúale – “Mountain Crow”

Apsaalooke oral history describes a fourth group, the Bilapiluutche – “Beaver Dries its Fur”
who may have merged with the Kiowa in the second half of the 17th century.

The Ashalaho or Mountain Crow, were the first to travel west, They were the largest Crow group to split from the Awatixa Hidatsa. Crow leader, No Intestines, had received a vision and led his people on a long migratory search for sacred tobacco, finally settling in the foothills and Rocky Mountains along the Upper Yellowstone River (present-day Wyoming-Montana border). This included the Big Horn and Absaroka Range (aka: Absalaga Mountains). The the eastern edge of their territory being the Black Hills.
The Binnéessiippeele, (River Crow) Tradition says they split from the Awatixa Hidatsa due to a dispute over a bison stomach. The Hidatsa called them Gixáa-iccá, “Those Who Pout Over Tripe”. They settled along the Yellowstone and Musselshell rivers south of the Missouri River and in the river valleys of the Big Horn, Powder and Wind rivers (historically known as the Powder River Country), sometimes traveling north to the Milk River.
Eelalapito – (Ammitaalasshé), claimed the area known as the Bighorn Basin, from the Bighorn Mountains in the east to the Absaroka Range to the west, and south to the Wind River Range in northern Wyoming. Occasionally settling in the Owl Creek Mountains, Bridger Mountains and in the south along the Sweetwater River.

By the early 19th century, the Apsáalooke fell into three independent groupings, who came together only for common defense.

Crow Indians
Photo: U.S. PD

Gros Ventre





Kiowa [Kaigwu] {main people} The Kiowa are an Athabaskan people who split off from the Apache after the migration from Alaska in the late 1400’s or early 1500’s. Western Montana (1600’s) > (1700’s) eastern Wyoming, South Dakota > {expansion pressure} Nebraska – North Platte River > Kansas and northern Oklahoma. Nomad hunter gatherers, > + horse (1700’s) Nomadic Plains Hunters – buffalo; Raiders.
Arikara  [Arikaree] {horns} (1700’s?) North Dakota > + horse (1700’s) hunted west to Montana. Farmers, village seasonal buffalo hunters.
Further Reference for Kiowa:
Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre
Wk. 23, 06/08/1871 – Chief Satank
Wk 41, 10/11/1878 – Chief Satanta
Photo Gallery Index – Indian PhotosCatlin PaintingsGreat Chief Dohäson

Mandan (First Contact: 1738, French Fur Traders, the La Vérendrye family)



Traditional Osage Tribal Lands map - Late 17th Century - Native American Tribes

Osage Traditional Tribal Lands Late 17th Century

Map: U.S. P.D. 1012, MonsMonstrum
Osage Traditional Tribal Lands Late 17th Century
(see: The Originals – Battlefields and Massacres – Massacres by Indians
– Claremore Mound Massacre
(see: Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre)




Pawnee  [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; tribal occupation
(My adoptive mother was a quarter Pawnee, her Grandfather, was the full blood. – Doc  {001})



Ponca  [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; tribal occupation








The Sioux Nation
Oceti Sakowin

The Great Sioux Nation is divided into three linguistically
and regionally based groups and several subgroups.
Linguistically, all three language groups belong to the Sioux language.

Also known as Lakȟóta, Thítȟuŋwaŋ, Teton, and Teton Sioux
Northern Lakota (Húŋkpapȟa, Sihásapa)
Central Lakota (Mnikȟówožu, Itázipčho, Oóhenuŋpa)
Southern Lakota (Oglála, Sičháŋǧu)

Western Dakota
Also known as Yankton-Yanktonai or Dakȟóta
Yankton (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ)
Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna)

Eastern Dakota
 Also known as Santee-Sisseton or Dakhóta
Santee (Isáŋyáthi: Bdewákhathuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute)
Sisseton (Sisíthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ)

Sioux [Dakota, Lakota, Nakota]  {allies} (early 1600’s), most of Minnesota and parts of Iowa, North and South Dakota and Wisconsin > Conflict migration: North and South Dakota, west as far as eastern Wyoming and Montana. Originally woodland hunter gatherers > + horse in 1600’s west: nomadic buffalo hunters/ 1700’s east: farmers, village based buffalo hunters.

Hidatsa  are enrolled in the federally recognized Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. Their language is related to that of the Crow, and they are sometimes considered a parent tribe to the modern Crow in Montana.
–   Santee [Dakota] (Eastern Sioux): Minnesota along the Minnesota River. Woodland fishermen, hunter gatherers.
–      Sisseton; Wahpeton; Wahpekute and Mdewakanton
–   Teton [Titonwan] [Lakota] (Western Sioux): western South Dakota (Black Hills) and eastern Wyoming and eastern Montana. Nomadic buffalo hunters.
–      Brulé [Sicangu]; Hunkpapa; Itazipco; Miniconjou; Oglala; Oohenonpa [Two Kettle]; Itazipco [Sans Arcs]; Sihasapa
(see: Players – Timelines Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Treaties Timeline & Indian Wars Timeline)
–   Yankton [Ihanktonwan] (Nakota): (Middle Sioux): southeastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota along the Missouri River. Woodland fishermen, hunter gatherers.
–      Yankton
–   Yanktonai [Nakota] (Middle Sioux) eastern North and South Dakota along the Missouri River. Woodland fishermen, hunter gatherers.
–      Yanktonai; Hunkpatina and…
–      Assiniboine {those who cook with stones} Northern Minnesota and southwestern Ontario broke away from other Sioux to Canada in the 1600’s, then to Montana and North Dakota. Nomadic buffalo hunters.

(see: PLAYERS – Timelines Master Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Treaties Timeline
(see also:  PLAYERS – Timelines Master Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Wars Timeline)
Note: A Sioux Indians Timeline is in process… Events (not in date order) are listed on:
PLAYERS – Timelines Master Index – Timelines M-Z Index – Timelines M-Z Index

Note: I have included more information on the Sioux than the other tribes for several reasons:
First, I wanted to offer a small look at the complexity of infra-tribal relations, and the Sioux, were and are, a big, diverse tribe with a wide variety of territories and lifestyles; many of which were forced to change with the times.
Second: They tend to be seen as the iconic Western Indian of the Plains Indian Wars; just as the Apache were an icon of their own in the southwest. Although the names of Sioux warriors and the names of their bands loom large in the history of the Plains Wars; truth is, not all the Sioux were involved in the wars, because contingents of the tribe were well east of the conflicts of those times. Many had nothing to do with Custer and they were not involved in the catastrophe at Wounded Knee. The Sioux, as a group, were large enough to have experienced the full spectrum of the white invasion for good or ill and so, mirror and example the fate of all. As other tribes, they still struggle with the government yet today.
Third: Information is readily available about the Sioux, partly because of all of the above.

Tribal members or others with knowledge of the subject, please feel free to offer suggestions or corrections. I want the information here to be correct. – Doc

(see: Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre)

Wichita  [Kitikiti’sh] {racoon-eyed} (1541), parts of Kansas Oklahoma and Texas. Hunting, farming, annually migratory
(see: Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre)


Northeast Indians

Not too many references, as most inter actions were in the European settlement and “Revolutionary” times in the Eastern U.S. and precede ” The West” of our focus in Old West Daily Reader. However, these tribes are usually included in: The Originals – Battlefields and Massacres, as background and part of the complete story of Indian and European relation as they unfolded in the “New World”.



Chippewa [Ojibway]

Fox [Mesquaki]

Huron [Wyandot]


Iroquois [Haudenosaunee] (6)
Moved west with the fur trade, became a member of the Iron Confederation. (c. 1840’s)








Lenni Lenape [Delaware]
Traditional territory included present day New Jersey, along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island and the Lower Hudson Valley; forced west in the 1800’s and south into Indian Territory, OK in the 1860’s.
(see: Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre)















Tribal divisions: Mission, Prairie, and Woods c. 1861




(see: Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre)






Plateau Indians

Assiniboine (Nakota)
This tribe who live to the North of most of the Sioux peoples, speak a Siouan language closely related to the Sioux language but are not considered part of the modern Oceti Sakowin. The Assiniboine were the first of the Siouan-speaking peoples to leave the Eastern Woodlands and move onto the Great Plains.[5] They had developed as a separate people sometime before 1640, when they were first documented as a tribe by French missionaries. Because of this, other Sioux-speakers referred to them as the Hohe, or “rebels”. The Canadian Nakoda (Stoney) possibly began as the westernmost band of the Assiniboine, but were referred to as a separate people after about 1744. Later, in the nineteenth century, further bands belonging to the Dakota peoples and to a lesser extent to the Lakotas, also moved to Canada and their descendants still live in several of the Canadian First Nations.

Cayuse  [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; lifestyle

Coeur d’Alene

(see: Wk.22, 05/31/1896)

Flathead  [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; lifestyle




Modoc [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; tribal occupation
(see: Modoc War, included in: Timelines Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Wars Timeline – find 1872, Wk. 48 …)
use Control +F ( find), search for: Modoc on linked pages)

Nez Perce [Nimiipu or Nee-mee-poo -The People] (First Contact: 09/20/1805 – Lewis & Clark in Idaho), Ancestral Lands: Central Idaho – southeastern Washington – northeastern Oregon centered on the Salmon and Snake rivers. Primarily nomadic hunter gatherers, fishermen and hunters.
(see, in this order: Wks. 0948, 32, 20
use Control +F ( find), search for: Nez Perce on linked pages)
Active modern tribe: Nez Perce Reservations at Lapwai, ID and Colville. Concerned with fishing rights, tribal history and preservation of the language.




Walla Walla

Yakama  {growing family} (1805), Washington territory?; Fishermen, hunter gatherers
(Yakama War – 1855-56 – no entry yet)


Southeast Indians

As with other Eastern Native Americans, there are not too many references here, as most inter actions were in the European settlement and “Revolutionary” times in the Eastern U.S. and precede ” The West” of our focus in Old West Daily Reader. However, among these tribes are the first to have their lands stolen and be forced west to the “Indian Lands”, and they are also usually included in: The Originals – Battlefields and Massacres, as background and part of the complete story of Indian and European relation as they unfolded in the “New World”.

Alabama {camp, make place to camp} (1540), Alabama. Farmers, hunter gatherers







principal people

(1540) Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama > British (1700’s), Americans (1800’s), south and then to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Farmers, hunter gatherers, fishermen, reservation. These were the first victims of a mass re-location. The Apache tribes fought the invading Spanish and Mexican peoples for centuries. The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.S. Army found the Apache to be fierce warriors and skillful strategists.
Further Information for Cherokee Indians:
Wk. 22, 05/28/1830 – Indian Removal Act
Wk. 11, 03/18/1831 – Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

(see: Wk. 22, 05/28/1830 – Indian Removal Act)


(see: Wk. 22, 05/28/1830 – Indian Removal Act)


(see: Wk. 22, 05/28/1830 – Indian Removal Act)



Seminole  [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; lifestyle
(see: Wk. 22, 05/28/1830 – Indian Removal Act)
(and Wk. 43, 10/24/1862Wichita Agency Massacre)







Southwest Indians

Traditional Grand Canyon Indians Tribal Territory map - Native American Tribes

Map: U.S. PD 2007 by Nikater


Traditional Pima Territory c 1700 - Native American TribesAkimel O’odham [Pima] {river people} (1694 – Spanish)
southern Arizona, northern Sonora, Mexico
Farmers, hunter gatherers
On’k Akimel O’odham (On’k Akimel Au-Authm) – “Salt River People”
lived and farmed along the Salt River
Today: the Salt River Indian Reservation.
Photo of a PDF: U.S. PD 1996 by Barbara Trapido-Lurie – Pima Territory c. 1700
Tohono O’odham {desert people} (Sp. Papago)
Sonoran Desert in eastern Arizona and northwestern Mexico
Farmers, hunter gatherers
Today, the Tohono O’odham Nation (Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation) is located in southern Arizona, encompassing portions of Pima County, Pinal County, and Maricopa County.  {001}
Further reference for O’odham Indians:
The Originals – Resources and Hazards – Plants – Food PlantsBeans, Maize, Squash and The Three Sisters
Wk. 02, 01/12/1923 & Wk. 04, 01/24/1955 – Ira Hayes



(1540) Migrating south from Alaska through Alberta and Wyoming, these Athabaskans had arrived in the American Southwest, sometime in the late 1400’s or early 1500’s. Splitting off from the Navaho, they soon divided into a dozen or more major sub groups throughout the American Southwest: (Arizona, New Mexico with some areas in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and northern Mexico > Florida reservation > Oklahoma reservation. Raiders, Nomadic hunter gatherers, some farmers > + horse in late 1600’s; some buffalo hunters. Sustained resistance to invasion by Mexicans and Americans from the late 1500’s until the final capture of Geronimo [Chiricahua – Bedonkohe Apache *].
– Chiricahua **
– Kiowa – + horse in late 1600’s; Nomadic Buffalo Hunters, Raiders
–(became Plans Indians, see: Kiowa above)
– Lipan
– Mescalero
– Jicarilla – + horse in late 1600’s; Nomadic Buffalo Hunters, Raiders (became Plans Indians)
*Wk. 36, 09/04/1886 – Geronimo
**Wk. 36, 09/08/1886) – Chiricahua Apaches

Native languages and language families of North America - Ives Goddard, (1996).

Apachean tribes, c. 18th century: WA: Western Apache N: Navajo
Ch: Chiricahua M: Mescalero J: Jicarilla L: Lipan Pl: Plains Apache
Map – Native languages and language families of North America – Ives Goddard, (1996)

(see: Wk. 43, 10/24/1862 – Wichita Agency Massacre)



the people

 (1500’s), Hunter gatherer raiders > farmers, herders, silversmiths, weavers. They are Athabaskans, who migrated south from Alaska via Alberta and Wyoming, arriving in the American Southwest sometime in the late 1400’s or early 1500’s. Archaeological finds, dating to around 1500 and considered to be proto-Navaho, have been located in northern New Mexico around the La Plata, Animas and Pine rivers. They settled in New Mexico and parts of southern Colorado and Utah > Arizona reservation.
(see: Wk. 38, 09/22/1861 – Fort Wingate Massacre)
(see also: The Originals Index – Landmarks and RegistersShiprock)

Long Walk map - Native American TribesLong Walk – The Long Walk of the Navajo,* (Navajo: Hwéeldi), Navaho Long Walk map locater - Native American Tribesaka, the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo. 53 forced marches occurred between August 1864 and the end of 1866. The U.S. government, via the army, forced the Navajo people to walk from their reservation in what is today’s Arizona to be relocated in Bosque Redondo, eastern New Mexico.  {001}
also in:
References – Dictionary




Hopi  [2nd name] {self name}, territory; Pueblo, farmers, Philosophers
European contact came with Coronado expedition explorer Don Pedro de Tovar, who encountered the Hopi about 1540 while searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold.



Pubelo  [2nd name] {self name} (1st contact), territory; lifestyle


ranging from the Colorado River to the Tonto Basin
Divided into four subtribes:
Kewevkapaya (Southeastern)
Tolkapaya (Western)
Wipukpaya (Northeastern)
Yavepe (Northeastern)

Yuma [Quechan] {people of the river} (1540), western Arizona and southeastern California. Farmers, fishermen/hunters.

Zuni {the flesh} (1539), New Mexico. Pueblo farmers, hunter/fishermen, weavers, silversmiths. Photo: U.S. PD pre-1923




Further insight into the Indians of the time may be found in:
The Originals Index – Native American Tribes – Native American Pre-History
The Originals Index – Native American Tribes – Pueblos of New Mexico
PLAYERS – Timelines Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Treaties Timeline
PLAYERS – Timelines Index – Timelines A-L Index – Indian Wars Timeline
see also:
Quotes Index – Indian Quotes
Photo Gallery Index – Indian Photos
Photo Gallery Index – Indian Photos – Indian Chiefs Photos
The Originals Index – Horses
and References – Dictionary
Modern references:
Wk. 38, 09/21/2004 – National Museum of the American Indian
Wk. 33, 08/15/1977 – American Indian Institute
Links to Friends – Indian Pueblo Cultural Center – New Mexico

As always with Old West Daily Reader, this is a light touch on a vast and complex subject. Hopefully, Native American Tribes has enough information to start and/or enrich your own explorations into the amazing world of the First Americans. – Doc

Any mistakes or errors in this entire section are solely mine.
Please feel free to offer suggestions or corrections.
I want the information here to be accurate.
  email me.
Contact – Doc B.

barbed wire divider2 - Native American TribesEnd: Native American Tribes

{001} C 06/21; E 02/18; F 05/12; P 12/17

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